Select all the molecules that may be found in ground substances.

Select all the molecules that may be found in ground substances.

1 Glycosaminoglycan
2 Chondroitin sulfate
3 Proteoglycans
4 Fibronectin


All 4 options – Glycosaminoglycans, Chondroitin sulfate, Proteoglycans, and Fibronectin are correct as they are all molecules that can be found in ground substances.


All the components of the extracellular matrix (ECM) are contained in an amorphous gel-like substance called Ground Substance located in the ECM’s extracellular space. Although the components of the ground substance vary depending on the type of tissue, they are primarily composed of water and organic molecules such as glycosaminoglycans(GAGs), glycoproteins, and proteoglycans.

Glycosaminoglycans are polysaccharides that give the ground substance its gel-like texture by trapping the water contents. Some of the important GAGs found in ground substances are chondroitin sulfate,dermatan sulfate, heparan sulfate, and hyaluronic acid. They are bound to proteins called proteoglycans.

Glycoproteins mainly include laiminin and fibronectinwhich is considered a large glycoprotein that is found in all vertebrates. These are proteins that attach the components of ground substance to one another and also to the surfaces of cells.

Thus all 4 given molecules can be found in a ground substance and hence the answer options.

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